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AMINTIRI DIN TIRGU LAPUS / SASCUT

TARA LAPUSULUI

   
 
 
 
 
  Articol preluat dintr-un portal studentesc , nu are numele autorului  
 
Tara Lapusului, situate in extremitatea nordica a teritoriului in care s-a infaptuit sinteza geto-daco-romana si au dat nastere poporului roman, descinde in istorie cu aceasi fizionomie spiritual ca mai toate tinuturile ce poarta amprenta unei etnicitati viguroase, marcata de constinta propriei valori.
Viata spirituala a locuitaorii Tarii Lapusului este indisolubil legata de aparitia si patrunderea crestinismului care s-a dezvoltat ca de astfel pe intreg teritoriul romanesc, in forma rasariteana ortodoxa.
Bisericile si manastririle au fist un focar de raspnadire a religiei crestine ortodoxe si in acelasi timp de culturalizare, desfasurand si activitati scolare pentru nevoile bisericii.
Crestinii orotodoxi din aceste parti au apartinut din punct de vedere religios la inceput de Manastirea si Biserica Arhanghelii Mihail si Gavril din Peri Maramures, infintata de urmasii lui Dragos in 1939, care au cerut patriahului din Constantinopol s-o primeasca sub protectia sa.
In timpul stapanirii Moldovei asupra cetatii si Domeniului Ciceului, laspusenii apartineau religios de Manastirea si Episcopia vadului, ce dateaza din 1479. Intrand sub jurisdictia acestei episcopii, Tara Lapusului a cunoscut o intesificare a relatiilor economic-culturale cu Moldova. Stefan cel Mare stia bine ca asezamintele spiritual ale Ciceului sunt mai trainice decat stapanirea politica. In fruntea manastirii se afla un episcope care depindea de Mitropolia din Suceava.
Legaturile cu Moldova au fost mentinute, iar popoulatia a putut rezista ademenirilor care tindeau la desfiintarea natioanala.
Situatia demografica a populatiei Domeniului Ciceului, unul dintre cele mai romanesti tinuturi din Transilvania, explica si faptul ca Stefan a aratat viu interes fata de biserica de pe Valea Somesului, Episcopia ,, fiind un adapost pentru rerligia ortodoxa, prigonita de biserica oficiala a Transilvaniei “.
Lacasuri de cult s-au infiintat, desigur, odata cu intemeierea asezarilor,dar perisabilitatea materialului din care au fost contruite nu au permis ca aceasta sa ajunga pana la noi.
Contruirea de biserici a cunoscut o perioda de avant in cursul veacului al XVII-lea, in special in timpul domniei celor doi rpincipi Gheorghe Rakoczi, cand evenimentele politice, luptele pentru putere, luptele cu turcii au determinat pe principia Transilvaniei sa acorde o seri de insleniri romanilor. Acestei periaode ii apartin, se pare, cele mai vechi biserici monument pastarate pana in zilele noastre : Biserica Adormirea Maicii Domnului din Lapus, Sfintii Arhangheli Mihail si Gavrila din Rogoz, Sfantul Ilie din Cupseni, bisericile din Lobotin, Ungureni.
Bisericile in jurul carora s-a desfasurat o activiate scolara au fost mai multe, in fiecare sat lapusan, dar peste veacuri au rezistat doar cateva dintre ele.
Arhitectura bisericilor din zona prezinta stranse inrudiri cu cea din Maramures si Somes. Sistemul constructive si planimetria sunt asemenea tuturor mnumentelor de lemn romanesti. Au un plan simplu alcatuit di 3 incaperi consecutive de la veste la este:pronaos, naos si absida altarului. Elementele variabile sunt doare forma absidei (dreptunghiulara sau poligonala), prezenta pridvorului si plasarea usii la intrare (pe fatada vestica sau cea sudica).
Acoperisul e inalt, cu treasina lunga, iar deasupra pronaosului-turn clopotnita, dezvoltat considerabil pe inaltime si incununat de un coif sageata.
In zona Lapusului un numar mare de monumente au turnurile orante cu 4 turnulete la baza coifului, particularitate intalnita si in alte zone din nordul Transilvaniei.
In Tara Lapusului activeaza pictorul Radu Munteanu din Ungureni, primele lucrari din 1967 gasindu-se in satul sau si in biserica Din Lapus.
In toate satele lapusene, primele centre de cultura au fost bisericile, fiind inaltate de membrii comunitatii. La inceput s-au construit biserici mici din lemn, apoi incepand cu secolul al XVIII-lea s-au construit biserici mari din piatra si caramida.
Tot biserica a fost cea care cea care a asigurat pastrarea si circulatia cartilor vechi romanesti, cu toate vicisitudinle care au trecut peste locuitorii Vaii Lapusului. Circulatia cartii romanesti de invatatura in spatial Tarii Lapusului ner dovedeste intereseul de care aceasta s-a bucurat in lumea satului, precum si eforturile pe care preotii si credinciosi le depuneau pentr achizitioanarea si pastrearea acestei carti, care a slujit de-a lungul vremii ca focar de cultura, contribuind la unitatea de limba si credinta a tuturor romanilor . Pe langa biserici s-au intocmit cele din intai register de stare civila a credinciosilor.
ARHITECTURA BISERICILOR
Prin arhitectura bisericilor si picture murala taraneasca, Lapusul este una dintre cele mai remarcabile zone ale tarii.
Aceste impresionantre realizari arhitecturale reprezinta, prin insusi tehnica de constructive, prelungirea in timp a unorconstructii anterioare, pe care le-au inlocuit treptat, respectandu-le planul si silueta, fiind sinteza unor elemente de origine diferita.
Unele elemente de constructive, nava recangulara, cu peretii din barne de lemn, cu acoperisul inalt, cu pante repezi, crestaturile si ciopliturile in lemn deriva din casa taraneasca si din arta popular. In schimb, altarulpoligonal, acoperisul cu turle zvelte reprezinta rezulatul unor contaminari cu arhitectura gotica.
Bisericile din lemn din zona Lapusului au un plan dreptunghiular cu absida decrosata, poligonala, acoperisul inalt, cu o singura poala, cu streasina larga. Ceea ce le defineste etse turnul clopotnita, reidicat spre pronaos, cu galerii arcate si coif inalt pyramidal. Aceste monumente arhitecturale reprezinta, in inteles etno- istoric, semen ale unor situatii din trecut, cu semnificatii bogate in viata cultural a a zonei.
In zona Lapusului, ca de altfel in toata Transilvania, se obisnueste mutarea bisericilor si aa altor constructii de lemn dintr-o parte in alta, mutarile fiind legate de fenomene demografice, de schimbari sociale sau de trecera la o noua etapa cultural.
Radu Munteanu a creat o adevarata scoala de picture in zona, farmecul picturii lui constand in sinceritatea ei spontana. Un element interesant in picture murala din Lapus l-a constituit aparitia elementelor laice si a portretelor. Pictura murala din zona Lapus arata si legatura cu pictorii din scoala moldoveneasca si, prin intermediul lor, cu scoala biantina rusa. Dar ceea ce ramane characteristic acestor picture este apropiera de viata satului, de realitate.
 
ȚaraLăpușului pe vremuri

Magyar-láposi járás
Székhely: Magyar-Lápos
Berence, Blózsa, Boérfalva, Borkút, Brébfalva, Csernefalva, Csokote, Dánpataka, Kis-Debrecen, Lápos-Debrek, Disznópataka, Domokos, Fonác, Garbonác, Groppa, Gyertyános, Kovás-Kápolnok, Monostor-Kápolnok, Szurdok-Kápolnok, Kohpataka, Kosztafalva, Kis-Körtvélyes, Kötelesmező, Kupsafalva, Lackonya, Oláh-Lápos, Oláh-Láposbánya, Largó, Libaton, Macskamező, Magura, Petyeritye, Ploppis, Batiz-Polyán, Preluka, Rogoz, Rohi, Rusor, Alsó-Szőcs, Felső-Szőcs, Sztojkafalva, Sztrimboly, Tőkés, Ungurfalva, Ünőmező, Vád

 
 
     TERRA LAPUS- așa cum a fost cunoscută ȚARA LĂPUSULUI pe vremuri , din perioada antica , a fost acea parte din nordul Daciei ce era in jurul rîului LĂPUS .
     Din anumite considerente și eu cred ECONOMICE , această ”ȚARĂ”  a fost păstrata de Regii Ungariei pentru a plătii  vaslilor lor pentru ajutoarele primite  , s-au pentru a strînge legaturile acestor vasali cu Casa Regală .
  Cred că rindurile de mai jos au legătură cu TARA LAPUSULUI . Dacă nu rog istorici ce citesc aceste rînduri să mă informeze .
 
 
 
 

Codex diplomaticus Hungariae ecclesiasticus ac civilis, Volume 8, Issue 1

By György Fejér

A. Ch. 1315. Carolus R. H. Thomae , ас Stephano, Comiti Siculorum, fliis Dionysii, terram Lapus , a Ladislao Vaiuoda occupatam, restiluit. Dat. in Temesvár in festo Beati regís Ladislai.

Nos Carolus, Dei gratia, Hex Hungarie, Dalmacie , Croacie etc. Princeps Sallernitanus et Honoris ac montis Sancti Angeli Dominus, signifcamus quibus expedit, tenore presencium, viuersis: quod accedentes ad nostram presenciam Magister Thomas, et Stephanus Comes Siculorum nostrorum, filii Dionysii, sua nobis protestacione studuerunt declarare, quod terra Lapus vocata in Comitatu de Zonuk existens cum auri fodina et omnibus ad eam pertinentibus, videlicet terra Munusturszaeg Kozarivár, item Wrbu, item Bogath et Mana, cum aliis ipsorum esset et fuisset hereditaria. Sed per Ladislaum quondam Woyvodam Transyluanum vsque modo potencialiter occupata extitisset et detenta, petens a nobis cum instantia, vt ipsos in suo iure conseruare et predictam terram Lapus vocatam cum ad ipsam pertinentibus ipsi de regia nostra benignitate reddere at restituere dignaremur. Vnde nos, qui ex officio suscepti regiminis vnum quemque in suo iure conseruare debemus, attendentes ecďam fidelia seruicia eorumdem Thome et Stephani Magistrorüm, quibus multipliciter se nobis studuerunt exhibere generosos (gratiosos) volentes eos in suo iure restituere, et conseruare, et seruiciis ipsorum occurrere regio cum fauore; prenominatam possessionem , seu terram Lapus vocatam , cum omnibus vtilitatibus et pertinenciis suis et terris prenotatis, ad eam pertinentibus vniuersis, eidem Thome et Stéphano, filiis Dionysii, eodem iure reddidimus et restituimus, quo vtpote ipsorum. hereditaria prius per ipsos babita fuit et possessa, et vti ipsam antea possederuut, sic possideant pacifice et quičte. Et volumus, quod vniuersi, quibus présentes ostendentur, eosdem filios Dionysii racione eiusdem terre seu possessionis in nullo modo molestare audeant vel praesumant. Datum in Temesvŕr in festo Baati Regis Ladislai. Anno Domini MCCC. quinto décimo."

Eruit ex origiuali Dan. Coroides. Tora. X. p. 21.

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Widdin 1365 Juni 29 Dionysius, Woiwode von Siebenbürgen, beauftragt seinen Vizewoiwoden Peter mit der Entscheidung in der Streitsache zwischen Johann, Sohn Gegus' von Malmkrog, und den Sachsen von Grosskopisch und Waldhütten, betreffend den Landstrich Lapus.

Orig. Pap. Ungar. Landesarchiv Budapest. Siegel, rund, Durchmesser 2.5 Centimeter, war in weisses Wachs auf der Rückseite zum Verschluss aufgedrückt.

Dyonisius vaivoda Transiluanus et comes de Zonuk dilecto sibi Petro vicevaivodae suo dicti vaivodatus dilectionis plenitudinem cum salute. Noveritis quod nobis in regno Bulgariae prope civitatem Bodinyensem in praesenti regio exercitu existentibus magister Johannes filius Gegus de Almakerek nostram in praesentiam veniendo exhibuit nobis quasdam literas patentes domini nostri regis in praedicto exercitu proxime transactis in quindenis festi sanctae trinitatis1) emanatas, per quarum tenores inter cetera idem dominus noster rex exauditis querimoniis praedicti magistri Johannis quandam terram Lapus vocatam eiusdem magistri Johannis cum silvis, vineis, arboribusque et terris arabilibus et quibusvis utilitatibus ut dicitur per Saxones praedicti domini regis de villis Walthyd et Kapus indebite occupatam eidem magistro Johanni scita prius omnimoda veritate perpetuo statui facere praecipiebat. Quibus quidem literis regalibus sic exhibitis praescripti Saxones duarum villarum hic existentes et per nos in praesentiam nostram legitime vocati comparentes se super facto praescriptae terrae Lapus efficacia instrumenta ac munimenta habere retulerunt ex adverso. Quibus sic perceptis commisimus eo modo, quod praedictae utraeque partes instrumenta eorum super facto dictae terrae Lapus, si quae habent confecta, contra sese in octavis festi beati Jacobi apostoli nunc venturi2) coram vobis in villa Zentemeryh exhibere teneantur, vosque praedictis partibus praesentibus exhibitis etiam instrumentis earum si quae habent super dicta terra Lapus confecta iuxta earundem tenores et praedictarum literarum regalium simi- [S. 225] liter per dictum magistrum Johannem tunc coram vobis reexhibendarum, scita etiam et perscrutata veritate propositionum ipsarum partium praenotatarum1) omnino mandatis domini nostri regis nobis impositis obtemperantes ipsam terram Lapus, si praedictis Saxonibus convenire ipsam agnoveritis, ex tunc iuxta praedictum regium mandatum a iure regali ipsam non separetis, sin autem eandem terram Lapus ipsius magistri Johannis fore verosimiliter cognoveritis, tunc ipsum magistrum Johannem in eandem terrae particulam Lapus vocatam legitime statuentes pacifice conservetis. Datum octavo die quindenarum praedictarum, in loco praenotato, anno domini Mmo CCCmo LXmob) quinto.
Auf der Rückseite Adresse: Dilecto sibi Petro vicevaivodae suo Transiluano pro magistro Johanne filio Gegus de Almakerek praeceptoria in octavis festi beati Jacobi2) coram vobis exhibenda.

Unter dem Siegel: Relatio Petri vicevaivodae
 
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Umrisse und kritische Studien zur Geschichte TOD SIEBENBÜRGEN Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Geschichto der deutlichen Colonlaten im Lande Von JK Scliullev Professor am evang Gymnasium in Hermannstadt correspondiren dem Mitglied der kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften und Ehrenmitglied der Berliner Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache ZWEITES HEFT Hermannstadt 1851 Martin Edlen v Hochmeister sche Buchhandlung THKODOIl TEIWBAVasEN
 
=50 Megjegyzés 1: nagyon ritka eset megérdemli az elnökség a király az utalás ilyen Woiwodalgerichte z B, ahol I. Lajos 1366-ban per una cum Martyris Maxim PFB et Georgii praelatis Baronibus hostris Wetssenburg a folyamatok, beleértve a híres eset úgy döntött, a terra Lápos
 
 
=Zu 50 Anm 1 Als äusserst seltener Fall verdient der Vorsitz des Königs bei dem Woiwodalgerichte Erwähnung wie z B 1366 wo Ludwig I pro xime pfb Georgii Martyris una cum praelatis et Baronibus hostris in Wetssenburg Processe darunter auch einen berühmten Rechtsstreit über die terra Lapus entschied
 
 
=50 Note 1 as very rare case deserves the presidency of the king at the mention of such Woiwodalgerichte z B where Ludwig I in 1366 per una cum Martyris maxim pfb Georgii et praelatis Baronibus hostris in Wetssenburg processes including a famous case decided on the terra Lapus
 
 
=50 Nota 1, caz foarte rar merită preşedinţia a regelui de la menţionarea unei astfel de Woiwodalgerichte z B, în cazul în care Ludwig I în 1366 pe UNA ejaculare Martyris Maxim pfb Georgii et praelatis hostris Baronibus în procesele de Wetssenburg, inclusiv un caz celebru a decis pe Terra Lapus
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Urkunde Nr. 845 aus Band II

Seite im UB:
238-239
Heute in:
Budapest, Ungarisches Landesarchiv [Magyar Országos Levéltár]
Druckvorlage:
Druck nach Original o. ä.
Abdruck als:
Volltext
Sprache:
Latein

845


1366 Mai 5 Das Weissenburger Kapitel schaltet die Urkunde des Königs Ludwig I. von 1366 Nr. »843 ein und berichtet dem Könige, dass die Eigentümer des Landstrichs Lapus nicht festgestellt werden konnten, und dass die Grösse dieses strittigen Gebietes achtzig Mansionen beträgt.

Orig. Pap. Ungar. Landesarchiv Budapest. Siegel, rund, Durchmesser 4 Centimeter, in weisses Wachs auf der Rückseite zum Verschluss aufgedrückt.

Bruchstück: Archiv (
») Neue Folge XXI, 240.

Excellentissimo principi domino Lodowico dei gratia illustri regi Vngariae capitulum ecclesiae Transsiluanae orationum suffragia devotarum cum perpetua fidelitate. Literas vestras honore quo decuit recepimus in haec verba. (Folgt die Urkunde des Königs Ludwig I. von 1366 Nr. »843.) Nos enim mandatis vestris obtemperare cupientes ut tenemur una cum eisdem hominibus vestris scilicet honorabili viro domino Petro praeposito ecclesiae omnium [S. 239] sanctorum de Wesprimio ac magistro Johanne filio Zoard nostros homines videlicet magistros Georgium et Ladislaum socios et concanonicos nostros ad praemissa exequenda duximus transmittendos. Qui demum ad nos reversi nobis concorditer retulerunt, quod ipsi in die festi inventionis sanctae crucis1) ad faciem ipsius terrae litigiosae Lapus vocatae accessissent et magister Johannes filius Gegus prius unam metam terream ex parte possessionis Walthyd habitam ostendisset, quam metam ambae partes veram commisissent, deinde per magnum et longum berch eundo versus meridiem unam metam prout eis apparebat ostendisset, quam iidem Saxones non veram metam esse affirmabant, ulterius eundo usque ad finem eiusdem berch plura loca metarum demonstrasset, quas per eosdem Saxones destruxisse fatebatur, sed ibi nullo modo metae apparebant, postea in fine eiusdem berch unam magnam metam demonstrasset, quam ambae partes veram et separantem inter possessiones Kaps, Byrtholm et Almakerek esse affirmabant, et plures metas idem magister Johannes ulterius non demonstrasset, demum praedicti Saxones ad unum aliud berch eosdem adduxissent, in quo descendendo plures metas apparentes et existentes ostendissent, quas erexisse tempore quondam Ladislai vaivodae fatebantur, sed praedictus magister Johannes ipsas metas potentialiter erectas esse affirmabat. Et quia partes praedictae super ipsa terra litigiosa concordes esse non poterant, una cum nobilibus et comitibus de sede Medyes vicinis et commetaneis ibidem existentibus, prout ingenio considerare et intueri valebant, praefatam terram taliter existimassent, ut in ipsa terra octuaginta mansiones seu curiae residere ac in terris arabilibus, silvis, aquis et vineis victualia et fructus habere possunt commode et utiliter in eisdem. Datum tertia feria proxima post festum eiusdem festi inventionis sanctae crucis, anno praenotato.

Auf der Rückseite Adresse: Domino regi pro magistro Johanne filio Gegus contra hospites de Kops et Walthug super terra Lapus vocata relatoriae.


 
 
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ARANYOS VÁRA.
(Aranyas 1351. Aranias 1383.)

Hol volt ez az Aranyos nevű vár? Oklevél, írott emlékezet hallgat róla. Helyéről csak ezek a biztos adatok, hogy a Szilágyban, Szolnok-, majd később Közép-Szolnok vármegyében feküdt. Szerencse, hogy egytől-egyig ismerjük a hozzátartozó falvakat s a birtoklásáról is eléggé tiszta a kép.

Csánki jeles tudósunk azt mondja:*Hunyadiak kora, VI., (Magyarország tört. földr. I.) 548. l. fekvésére nézve irányadók egy 1246-dik évi oklevél*Hazai Okmánytár, I. 24. l. ama szavai: «…iuxta Lapus terra … cum uno loco castri eidem castro adiacens». E vár alatt, mint írja, valószínűleg Aranyos értendő. Még ennyit ír aztán róla: Különben úgy látszik, Kővár mellett hamar elhanyatlott s már 1405-ben sem volt meg, mert Kővár ez évi nagy iktatólevelében hallgatnak róla, csak a két Aranyos nevű helységet említik.

Mindössze ennyi ez, a mi Aranyos váráról s annak fekvéséről tudva van.

Vegyük szemügyre mindenekelőtt a Csánki idézte 1246-iki oklevelet.

A nyitrai káptalan 1246-ban bizonyítja, ő előtte a Gutkeled nemzetségéből származott Pál, a Miklós fia, megjelenvén, ellenmond, mintha négy öröklött faluját és a Lápos mellett egy földet rokoni szeretetből a szintén Gutkeled nemzetségből származó István nyitrai főispánnak, a Dragun fiának, {21.} adományozott volna. Az egyik a Szamos mellett elterülő Széplak nevű föld. A második egy patak mellett fekszik, a hol az Alus nevű falú volt, a harmadik, a hol Mikófalú van, a negyedik pedig Ugruch nevű a Szilágy vize mellett. Ezenfölül a Lápos mellet harmincz ekényi föld egy várhelylyel, a mely az ő (Pál) vára mellett van. Az az út is, a mely Széplak faluról abba a várba vezet.*Hazai Okmánytár. I. köt. 24. lap.

E szerint a várhely, a vár a Lápos mellett van; Aranyos várát a Lápos közelében kereshetjük. Talán ott, a hol a Lápos a Szamosba ömlik, a mely tájt ma Mező-Aranyos, Erdő-Aranyos (a nagysomkuti, illetve a nagybányai járásban) községeket találjuk. Aranyos-Medgyesre nem gondolhatunk, mert ez egészen más irányban fekszik, Szinér-Váraljától északnyugotra. Ám ezek a helynevek egyebek híján még semmit sem mondanak; de nem is Aranyost kell keresnünk az említett kitételben a Lápos mellett, az kétségkivül Kővárra vonatkozik. Ebből az oklevélből egyszersmind azt az érdekes dolgot is megtudjuk, hogy Kővár a Drágfiak előtt kiknek a kezén volt. Az itt előforduló Dragun a Gútkeled nemzetség Sárvár monostori főágának Ráskay-nevű alágához tartozó személy, nagyatyja azon hirhedt Joachimnak, a ki V. István király halálának előidézője lőn. Kővár tehát először 1375-ig a Gútkeledeké. Pesty szerint romjai ma is megvannak a Szerny hegy oldalán a Lápos bal partján, egy órányira Butyásza falutól, említi Csánki.*Csánki, i. m. 548. l. A hol a Lápos a Szamosba ömlik, Aranyos községe táján egyébként sem várrom nincs, sem ilyesmiről a nép nem tud. A régi térképek ott mutatják Aranyos községét; de az mindig villa volt, Aranyos vára tartozéka. Itt csak az okoz nehézséget, hogy a Lápos mellett egy várhely s egy vár van említve. Erre nézve eligazít Bél Mátyás, a ki azt mondja a XVIII. század közepén Kővárról, hogy, mint a történetírók elbeszélik, kettős volt e vár, az {22.} egyik magasabb, másként fennebb fekvő, a mely – mint a romok mutatják – nagy palotákkal volt beépítve; a másikat, az alsót, védőfallal erősítették s ez az őrsereg tartózkodó helyéül épűlt. Mindakettő a Rákóczi-féle fölkelésben sok harcz viszontagságát állotta ki, de a császár parancsára a földig lerontották.*Comp. 1779. 294. lap. Igaz itt duplex, kettős várról van szó, a mi lényegi különbséget nem tesz. Az igen fontos dolog, hogy Bél Mátyás köődi váráról is szól. Köődről, mint várról a következőket írja 1753-ban*U. o. 298. l. s 1779-ben: Köd igen magas hegyen köröskörül van véve a legsűrűbb erdőkkel. A romjaiból Kővárát építették fel.*U. o. 298. l. Az nem bír valószinűséggel, hogy a Köőd melletti bárminő várból építették Kővárát, egyfelől a távolságnál fogva, másfelől mert Kővár vidékén is van építési kőanyag bőséggel. Egyébként mindez jelentéktelen körülmény. Bél Mátyás a köődi vár alatt nem mást érthetett, mint azokat a romokat Köőd mellett, melyekben Bunyitay a meszesi apátságot látja. Ime Bél Köődöt, mint Közép-Szolnok egyik elpusztult várát emliti a z.-csehi s a hadadi mellett. Ő sem tud semmit apátságról, kolostorról, csupán csak várromról beszél, a minthogy a nép is csetátyénak nevezi azt a helyet is, a hol a romok állnak. Magam bejártam a romok hegyoldalát. A vársánczok nyomai még ma is kivehetők. És az említett falvak, Aranyos vára tartozékai nem mind e tájt feküsznek? Nem a köődi romokat környékezik-e?

 
De cînd mă ocup cu căutările mele pe internet și publicarea lor , am primit o cerere de a publica articole și pe engleză pentru ne stiitori de limbă româna .
 
 
 
Where is the Country of Lapus?
 
 

The region lies in the North-Eastern part of the Romanian ethnical teritory and belongs to the District of Maramures, together with the other 4 regions mentioned above. The Country of Lapus, seems to be supported by three glorious stone copings the Tibles Mountains: Arcer-1830m, Tibles-1839m & Brad-1840m, making up a summit directioned

 

North-West and South-East.
The nowadays habitations look like a row of beads strung on the thread of the Lapus River and is streams. The Country of Lapus overlaps as a physical & geographical unit with the hydrographical field of the streams of Lapus River. The Country of Lapus was created by the splitting and diving of an ancient crystal massif that used to bound Apuseni Mountains and Rodna Mountains. The mineral cover is made up of red clay, limestone, conglomerated glifstone.The volcanic matter forms the borders of this region. The most important hills are: The Hill of the Raven and The Big Hill. Step by step one reaches The Lapus Meadow.

Within the Volcanic Mountains, which make up a kind of ceiling, the country of Lapus holds a temperate-continental climate, recording temperatures on a scale from -38 centigrade(1928) to +35 centigrade(1993). The brown soils of the hills are used as ground for cereal culture, pastures, hay fields and tree culture. The mountains soils allow basically these the beech forests, oak, fir-tree forests. The animals living in these

woods are: wolves, birds, deer, wild pigs, hares, martens and a great variety of birds. As for the ethymological origin of the term 'Lapus', there are to be taken into account several possibilities; it may come from the Latin adjective lapos, with the meaning of smooth, flat, or lepus-rabbit or lapis-stone or the old Romanian term for weed-Lapus.
The oldest documentary certification goes back to 1070 and refers to the Lapus River and the next one with the same reference dates on 1231. In 1315 the region is registered under the name of Terra Lapus.(The Country of Lapus)
The archaeological research taking place in this region shows that the Country of Lapus has been inhabited since the old times, reaching at a certain moment a quite high level of civilisation. Related to the Bronze Era, there has been discovered evidence of 2 culture groups: The Lapus group & the Upper Luciu group that bring information about the funeral ritual, about the main occupation of the native people, viz. animal breeding and also that they knew how to obtain the necessary tools needed for the survival, out of raw material.
In the middle of the Country of Lapus, lies a small town-Targu Lapus- from where four large roads head for the four points of the compass..
The traditional jobs of the inhabitants are: farming, animal breeding, the work in the woods, bee-keeping, hunting, pottery, timber-making, egg-painting.
The holidays calendar is the Christian one(Orthodox) but also the 'old women's ' one. The holidays flow in a circular rhythm, defining the two-planned peasant-like spirituality, directed to transcendence and transience. The days hold certain meanings and the nights bring along interdictions. The peasants know signs or the zodiac, thinking about their children's fate. The girls got to the so-called 'social' and call their lads by magic crafts for destiny. The individual life here is a link from the chain of the cosmically existence.
The people living in the Country of Lapus like to dance and sing. When celebrating a Christian Holiday they wear their traditional clothing amazing in its variety of colours and especially the women's popular dressing remains a true lesson of aesthetics. There are a lot of churches and monasteries some older, some newer, as a proof of the strong faith of the people.

 
Lectie de istorie :
 
Răscoala condusă de Gheoghe Doja din 1514. Documentele vremii spun că trupele de răsculaţi din Maramureş şi Lăpuş s-au organizat la Odoreu înainte de a intra în cetatea Sătmarului, în ziua de 10 mai 1514, conduşi de un călugăr, Grigorie Darvado.
                     #

 

SPIRITUALITATEA - cunoaste o transformare continua, exprimata prin ARTA PREISTORICA care arata dezvoltarea simtului estetic, este reprezentat astfel:

v Cultul FECUNDITATII (reprezentari masculine si feminine);

v Cultul SOARELUI - sanctuarele circulare.

v Cultul MORTII - Kurganele specifice indo-europenilor.

Ex. Reprezentari apar in picturile rupestre de la LAPUS (Maramures),


 
 
 
 
 
Cam așa îmi aduc aminte de ” bătînele ” din ȚARA LĂPUȘULUI  pe vremuri , cînd veneu în LĂPUȘ .
 
 
Paysanne_en_opinci_heureuse_d_avoir_d_nich_des_pains_en_d_c_1990
 
 
tara lapusului, romania by catalinafilip.  
 
tara lapusului, romania by catalinafilip.  
 
tara lapusului, romania by catalinafilip.  
 
horincia, tara lapusului, romania by catalinafilip.  
 
tara lapusului, romania by catalinafilip.  
 
tanti ioana, la pozat,     tara lapusului, romania by catalinafilip.  
 
tara lapusului, romania by catalinafilip.  
 
tara lapusului, romania by catalinafilip.  
 
tara lapusului, romania by catalinafilip.
 
 
Toamna, in Tara Lapusului - Casa lapuseana 
 
BOTIZA
Botiza 
 
 
  
 
 
TRASEE TURISTICE MARAMURES - Prin bruma toamnei, la Ochiul Gropitei - Casa din Groape
 
 
TURISM MARAMURES - DEFILEUL LAPUSULUI - oarta surii familiei Man Alexandru din Dealul Corbului
 
TURISM MARAMURES - DEFILEUL LAPUSULUI - Muribunda gospodarie de vara
 
TURISM MARAMURES - DEFILEUL LAPUSULUI - Din tot mai rarul autentic de odinioara
 
 
TRASEE TURISTICE MARAMURES - Patru ceasuri prin Tara Lapusulu - Garantul strajuirii
 
 
TRASEE TURISTICE MARAMURES - Patru ceasuri prin Tara Lapusului - Tihna dupa-amiezii
 
 
CASA LAPUS - Vigilentul
 
 
TARA LAPUSULUI - La temelia credintei
 
 
TARA LAPUSULUI - Tot mai greu de descoperit
 
 

La mica invoiala - sat Ciuperceni, tara Lapusului

Costeni

Din TARA LAPUSULUI

Preluca noua






 

Toamna, in Tara Lapusului - Dusul clai de fan din camp 

 
Toamna, in Tara Lapusului - Casa din Libotin
 
 
 
 
Toamna, in Tara Lapusului - Casa lapuseana 
 
Toamna, in Tara Lapusului - Casa din Cupseni 
 
 
 
Toamna, in Tara Lapusului - Generatii trecande 
 
Toamna, in Tara Lapusului - In tihna amiezei, Costeni-Maramures
 
 
Toamna, in Tara Lapusului - Frunzar pentru asternut Cupseni 
 
 
 
Casa din Inau sub Satra lui Pintea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fus2.jpg
 
Foto Horvath Ioan (c) L.P.G.
 
Foto Casa Zamfirei Lese din Inau (c) eMM.ro
 

 
 
 
 
GRAIUL LĂPUȘAN

Ţara Lăpuşului, în schimb, dă dovadă de „o personalitate puternică”. Din punct de vedere geografic, etnic şi istoric, reprezintă zona extrem nordică a Transilvaniei. Cu toate acestea, este mai degrabă un fel de „arie laterală” a Maramureşului istoric, de unde a împrumutat un lexic bogat, numeroase aspecte etnografice şi un repertoriu folcloric apreciabil. La toate acestea se adaugă un fapt istoric, respectiv documente ce atestă că o serie de localităţi lăpuşene au fost întemeiate de nobili maramureşeni prin sec. al XIV-lea.

Indiferent de apartenenţa la un subdialect sau altul, graiurile din Lăpuş, Chioar sau Codru au împrumutat unele particularităţi fonetice de tip maramureşean, dată fiind apropierea geografică, precum şi raporturile sociale şi culturale. Abia din punct de vedere lexical putem vorbi de un relativ caracter unitar al graiurilor din cele patru regiuni, acestea înscriindu-se în aria nordică a teritoriului locuit de români

 

 

 

 

 
 
Name shown on the map
Nume din hartă
Administrative unit
Unitate administrativă
Romanian name
Numele românesc
Hungarian name
Numele unguresc
German name
Numele german
Country today
Ţara de astăzi
Magura Kővár kerület
Districtul Chioarului
(vezi
Ţara Chioarului)
Măgureni Nagyhegy Romania
Bretfalva vel Breben Kővár kerület Brebeni Brébfalva Romania
Köpataka vel Kufoja Belső-Szolnok megye
ro:Comitatul Solnocul de Mijloc
Cufoaia Kohópatak Romania
Borkut Belső-Szolnok megye Borcut Borkút Romania
Sztoikafalva Belső-Szolnok megye Stoiceni Sztojkafalva Romania
Lapos Debrek Belső-Szolnok megye Dobricu Lăpuşului Láposdebrek Romania
Libaton Belső-Szolnok megye Libotin Libaton Romania
Kis Debretzen Belső-Szolnok megye Dumbrava Kisdebrecen Romania
Matskamező Belső-Szolnok megye Răzoare Macskamező Romania
Danpataka Belső-Szolnok megye Vălenii Lăpuşului Dánpataka Romania
Disznopataka vel Pojana Porkuluj Belső-Szolnok megye Fântânele Lápospataka Romania
Also Szőts Belső-Szolnok megye Suciu de Jos Alsószőcs Romania
Rohi Belső-Szolnok megye Rohia Rohi Romania
 
 
 
 

PROF. ALEXANDRU FILIPAŞCU DE DOLHA ŞI DE PETRO VA

DOCTOR ÎN FILOSOFIE ŞI TEOLOGIE

De la romani se mai păstrează şi nume de sate, văi, munţi şi persoane :Muntele Cibleşul, consacrat zeiţei Oibclc

Cu nimicirea ultimelor triburi avare (802 - 814) se inaugurează o epocă de pace şi prosperitate până după încrcştinarea ungurilor şi consolidarea statului lor; epocă de care maramureşenii au profitat pentru a-şi desăvârşi organizaţia lor politică şi militară. în toată epoca de năvăliri Maramureşul (poate și în Țara Lăpușului -adăugare a mea-) a primit continue primeniri, în urma aşezării aici a elementelor alungate de năvălitorii de la sud şi de la vest. O însemnată parte din ausonii de limbă latină - pe care retorul Priscus, ambasadorul împăratului Teodosiu, îi găsi locuind în mare număr în jurul capitalei lui Attila s-au stabilit în regiunea deluroasă a Ugocei, unde au înfiinţat 28 sate, care formează Ţara Oaşului de azi, locuită numai de oşeni sau ausoni. Un grup de ausoni s-a stabilit pe Valea Cosăului, unde a format un cnezat care în 1381 încă purta numele de „Keneshtum possessionis nostrae Olachalis Ozon vocatae" (cf. ib. nr. 24).

Maramureş ale lui Dragoş s-au împărţit fraţii săi Giula din Giuleşti şi Drag din Bedeu, precum şi ruda lor - probabil cumnat - voievodul Seneslau din Dolha. După 2 ani, lui Dragoş îi urmează în domnie fiul său Sas, a cărui amintire o păstrează Valea Sasului de lângă Botiza,

 

Amalia ARDELEAN

West University “ Vasile Goldis” Baia Mare

Abstract:

The climate particularities, the variety of the landscape, the different nature of the rocks, the complexity of the goemorphological area (level difference of 1800m, different expositions, the grate amplitude of the slopes and soil types) are elements thich determined the existence of a rich and divers vegetation, grouped in more types of stations and vegetal associations. After the field trips I have identified in Lapus Region, in 3 floors of vegetation: 34 vegetal associations (11 classes, 15 orders and 24 aliances)

Keywords: Lapus region, vegetal associations, local factors

The Lapus Region is administrative integrated to the Maramureş county, occuping the south-east of it. The Lapus region is located in the north-west of Transylvania hollow and under the shadow of Tibles and Satra mountains.

Concerning the natural backround and geographical limits, the Lapus Region is situated in a intramountainous hollow oriented to the south. Due to interference settlement of European climate zones and complexity of forms of relief have resulted a great variety and diversity of vegetal species.

The physical-geographical area where the Lapus region overlaps approximately over the upper and middle of the river with the same name. Concerning the natural and geographical limits, the Lapus region is situated in an intramountainous hollow oriented to south, which is based to the north by the volcanic mountains of Tibles and Lapus, opens to the south over the Boiului Plateau and Breaza Peak to Somes Valley . In the west, Satrei Piedmont separates it by the Chioar historical country. To the south, where the area have borders with Salaj and Cluj counties is separated from them by Boiului Plateau, Vima hills and Breaza Peak. To Bistrita Nasaud county with which borders to the east, the zone is closed by Splaiului Hills and western versant of Tibles.

Starting with lowland, up to the highest peaks of mountains in the Lapus Region there are three floors of vegetation that include three underfloors of vegetation: hilly floor - the forests of hornbeam, hornbeam, mixed with other types of trees from the same class; mountain floor with lower underfloor (the hornbeambeech) middle underfloor (of the beech forests and mixed beech with resinous) and superior underfloor (of spruce forests), subalpine floor – of shrubberry from high mouintain regions and the subalpine lawns. This floor distribution is due to the difference in altitude over 1800 m of substrate, of climate changes and of pedobiology Local Influences have imposed variable limits on the floors of vegetation. However, in the dominant vegetation area, specific local factors have provided conditions for the development of intrazonal vegetal formations Hilly floor - the forests of hornbeam, hornbeam mixed with other types of trees from the same class. In forest composition in the layer of trees, enlightening is: Carpinus betulus. Along with him, we meet Fagus silvatica, Acer campestre, Populus tremula and Betula pendula. The layer of trees is well curdled and rich in species, being represented by: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina. Herbaceous layer is rich in species, the most representative being: Dentaria bulbifera, Asarum europaeum, Digitalis grandiflora, Festuca ovina, Helleborus purpurascens, Pulmonaria officinalis, Carex pilosa, Pteridium aquilinum. In his prevernal appearance, the grassy carpet of hornbeam forests and hornbeam mixture of other trees from the same class is represented by: Allium ursinum, Crocus vernus ssp. vernus, Scilla bifolia.

The most common association is As. Carpino - Fagetum. This association meets in the following types of ecosystems: “Fagus with Carpinus with Asperula” - Asarum - Stellaria, “Fagus and Asperula” - Asarum - Stellaria and “Fagus with Carpinus with Carex pilosa”.

Where forests were cleared were installed secondary meadows, formed in a large majority of grasses, in addition, in smaller percentages, there are legumes, Ciperacae and other species with economic value and with colorfull flowers which refresh the monotonous appearance of grasses.

On the terraces of rivers, where the groundwater is at low depth, were installed mezohigrophile species.

Floristic composition of the meadows is very rich: Agrostis alba, A. tenuis, Alopecurus pratensis, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Poa pratensis. Besides grasses occur other species: Achillea millefolium, A. spadicea, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Plantago lanceolata, Pl. media, Ranunculus repens, Taraxacum officinale. In mezo-higrophile meadows we meet species as: Cardamine pratensis, Carex distans, C. leporina, Campanula patula, Deschampsia caespitosa, Filipendula hexapetala, Juncus sp., Lychnis flos cucului, Ranunculus acris, Rhinanthus alectorolophus, Sanguisorba officinalis, Stachys silvatica, Symphytum officinale In fitocenoses of secondary meadows we have identified the following vegetal associations: As. Festuco rubrae – Agrostetum capillaris, As. Agrostetum stoloniferae. In this vegetation floor large areas are invaded by Nardus stricta, which indicates the damage of zone.

On sunny slopes, instead of cleared forests were installed shrubbery of Prunus spinosa and Crataegus monogyna.

On the river bank, dormant populations of Salix purpurea, S. fragilis, S. triandra, S. alba, S. caprea, Alnus glutinosa, Sambucus nigra, forming As. Aegopodio - Alnetum glutinosae, As. Salice capreae - Sambucetum racemosae, As. Salicetum purpureae and As. Stellario nemori-Alnetum glutinosae. In the layer of trees, near the willows and Arinus are present too: Carpinus betulus, Padus racemosa, Populus nigra.

Shrubs layer is well developed, being composed of: Cornus sanguinea, Corylus avellana, especially at the edges of glades and in more open places, Ligustrum vulgare, Rubus sp., Sambucus nigra. From climbing plants is frequent Calystegia sepium.

Herbaceous layer is well developed and it is composed of herbs: Leucanthemum vulgare, Filipendula ulmaria, Galium mollugo, Mercurialis perennis, Sisymbrium loeselii, Urtica dioica, Verbascum blattaria.

In slough areas from Stoiceni, Libotin, Suci, Lapusului Valley appear populations of Alisma Plantago - aquatica, Batrachium fluitans, Juncus effusus, J. inflexus, Lemna minor, Menyanthes trifoliata, Potamogeton natans, Ranunculus aquatilis, Scirpus lacustris.

In the intramontane hollows and valleys, at altitudes of 300 - 600 m were identified associations As. Calamagrostio - Salicetum cinereae, made of shrubberies of Salix cinerea canesce with Calamagrostis and As. Salicetum albae - fragilis, which is present in the type of ecosystem represented by Glade of Populus nigra with Rubus caesius - Galium aparine.

Mountain floor

- Lower underfloor (of forests of beeches): The characteristic vegetation of this underfloor consists of mixed forests of beech and hornbeam, forming As. Carpino - Fagetum. This type of association is characteristic for the following types of ecosystems: “Fagus with Carpinus with Carex pilosa”, “Fagus with Carpenus with Asperula “- Asarum – Stellari, “Fagus with Asperula” - Asarum – Stellaria.

- Middle underfloor (of the beech forests and mixed beech with resinous): The vegetal coating of this underfloor is varied. Dominate forests of “Fagus with Carex pilosa “and “Fagus with Asperula” - Asarum – Stelaria, but forest formation include also mixed forests of beech and hornbeam and beech with spruce and even beech with fir. In restricted areas, located in the bottom of the valleys, forests of beech, at their upper limit, reached the climax stage (Garden Face, Peak Pit, Prelucilor Spring, Corha Peak, Cârligătura, Arcer Spring - affected byfelled trees). Bunches of old spruce and beech are at the Bison Foot, Stone Stream, Setrita Peak. On the Minghet massive on Corha Valley are blending beech with sycamore for 110 years, and the Tibles Mountains at Elijah's Stream extends the shaft of sycamore of unexploited field of 100 - 120 years. But many old forests have been cleared or are in the process of deforestation. Instead, there are younger forests or bunches of plantations with different species of wood (beech, sycamore, fir, spruce).

On vertical side they have a large amplitude of spread (between 800-1000 m slope). These limits are influenced by climatic conditions and local edafice. The main species of the association is Fagus silvatica. Trees have generally large size and vigorous trunks, straight, forming closed forests. At high altitudes, are added spruce and fir and at lower limits the hornbeam. Other woody species encountereddisseminated in these forests are Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Carpinus betulus, Ulmus glabra, Populus tremula, Salix caprea. Shrubs are rare and belong to a small number of species Sambucus nigra, Rubus hirtus, Vaccinium myrtillus, Corylus avellana, Rubus idaeus, Ligustrum vulgare. The dominant association is represented by: As. Coryletum avellanae syn. As. Rubo - Coryletum.

Herbaceous layer is well developed, rich in species. The abundance of grassy species depend on the light. The species are: Anemone nemorosa, Asperula odorata, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Campanula abietina, Carex pilosa, C. silvatica, Corydalis cava, Dentaria bulbifera, D. glandulosa, Deschampsia flexuosa, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Fragaria vesca, Galium schultesii, Geranium robertianum, Lamium album, Leucanthemum waldsteinii, Dryopteris filix-mas, Polygonatum verticillatum, Pteridium aquillinum, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salvia glutinosa, Symphytum cordatum, Veronica officinalis. The forests of beech belong to the following vegetal associations: As. Symphyto cordata - Fagetum, widespread in all the mountains, on land weak acid eubasics with flora of mull, As. Symphyto - Fagetum, As. Hieracio round - Fagetum.

At the upper limits of forests of beech, the beech is forming forests mixed with spruce, sometimes fir. In Tibleş Mouintains there are identified the following associations: As. Leucanthemo waldsteinii - Fagetum and forests of beech are mixed up with fir forming: As. Pulmonario rubrae - Fagetum on sunny and moderately inclined versants In place of cleared forests there are areal fitocenoses of secondary meadows which form stretched clearings, both at underfloor limits and in the beech forests. Species that erect most frequently laxes in this underfloor are: Festuca rubra, Agrostis tenuis, Deschampsia caespitosa, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Poa pratensis, P. nemoralis, Briza media, Trifolium medium, T. pratense, T. dubium, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Galium vernum, Dianthus carthusianorum, Knautia arvensis, Leontodon autumnalis, Achillea millefolium. The most common association is: As. Festuco rubrae - Agrostetum capillaris, occupying large areas in the mountain floor to top of coniferous forests. The largest areas of these meadows are used as pasture. Due to intense grazing and soil subsidence on this occasion, those meadows pass gradually in phitocenoces dominated by Nardus stricta, forming As. Violo declinatae - Nardetum which degrades meadows and decreases productivity.

Along the mountain streams on the flooded gravels, installs populations of Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, Cirsium oleraceum, Filipendula ulmaria, Geranium phaeum, Impatiens noli-tangere, Mentha longifolia, Myricaria germanica, Myosotis silvatica, Salvia glutinosa, Senecio nemorensis, Telekia speciosa, Tussilago farfara.

Associations identified along mountain streams are: As. Salici purpureae - Myricarietum, As. Telekio speciosae - Alnetum incanae.

Compact forests of beech are interrupted in many places by a vegetation of forest cuts. On land recently deforested were installed provisional vegetation of herbs and bushes, populated with Atropa belladonna, Calamagrostis arundinaceae, Chamaenerion angustifolium, Dryopteris filix-mas, Epilobium montanum, Milium effusum, Rubus idaeus, Sambucus ebulus, S. racemosa. Asociaţia identificată este As. Fragario – Rubetum.

- Superior underfloor (of forests of spruce) The vegetal coating of this underfloor is mainly represented by forests where spruce predominates and cleared land covered with secondary meadows. In this subfloor, detritus, intramountains valleys are covered with intrazonal vegetation the most extensive forests of spruce are in Tibles mountains and in Minghet mountain appear only fragmentarily on the north versants. On Varatec Massive populations of spruce are found in the form of intercalar enclaves in forest of beech.

Trees layer is heterogeneous, spruce being enlightening. In several places in the Tibles Mountains appears Abies alba, and at the lower limit is encountered Fagus silvatica. Bushes layer almost miss. Shrubs are present only in the outskirts of forests or in the clearings. But in some places, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitisidaea form curdled layers. In the floristic composition of the herbaceous layer is more commonly encountered: Blechnum spicant, Calamagrostis arundinaceae, Campanula abietina, Deschampsia flexuosa, Dryopteris filix-mas, Geranium silvaticum, Homogyne alpina, Leucanthemum waldsteini, Luzula luzuloides, L. silvatica, Oxalis acetosella, Senecio fuchsi, Soldanella hungarica. Associations are identified: As. Hieracio rotundati - Piceetum, As. Leucanthemo waldsteinii - Piceetum, As. Sphagno – Piceetum, As. Luzulo silvaticae – Piceetum abietis, As. Pulmonarie rubrae – Piceetum.

Large areas of coniferous forests were cleared in time for the expansion of meadows or for recovery of wood. In these territories, were installed secondary mezofile meadows. Among the species most common and characteristic of boreal meadows in the floor include: Agrostis tenuis, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Campanula patula, C. napuligera, C. abietina, Centaurea jacea, Dactylis glomerata, Deschampsia caespitosa, Festuca rubra, F. ovina, Gentiana asclepiadea, Hieracium aurantiacum, Hypericum montanum, Leontodon autumnalis, Nardus stricta, Phleum montanum, Phyteuma orbiculare, Potentilla aurea, P. ternata, Prunella vulgaris.The association identified is: Soldanella major - Piceetum. On the flat lands or low inclined, everywhere where they have long held the animals, instead of folds we meet: Senecionion - Rumicetum alpini.

Besides bucks, around the springs with the submission of gravel and with shallow layer of soil, were installed populations: Adenostyles alliaria, Athyrium filix-femina, Cirsium oleraceum, Doronicum austriacum, Filipendula ulmaria, Geum rivale, Geranium silvaticum, Impatiens noli-tangere, Melandryum rubrum, Petasites officinalis, P. kablikianus, Solidago virgaaurea, Senecio nemorensis, Urtica dioica, Valeriana sambucifolia, Telekia speciosa. Associations identified in these valleys are: As. Telekio - Petasitetum hybridi şi As. Junco inflexi – Menthetum longifoliae.

▪ Subalpin floor starts from the upper limits of the compact forests of spruce Tibles and Minghet Mountains.

At the upper limit of compact forests of spruce there are more rarely, the trees vegetate only in groups or appear solitary and the substrate is invaded by Vaccinium myrtillus and form limit forests of spruce. The association identified is: As. Campanulo abietinae - Vaccinietum. Subalpine floor vegetation is characterized by the dominance of shrubbery and among bunches of shrubbery there are subalpine meadows. Limestone regions are dominated by calcicole vegetal forms. Regions with constant moisture around streams have a luxuriant vegetation, consisting of herbs and on the rocks are fragmentary installed, populations of saxicole plants.

Typical for the subalpine floor are shrubberies of Pinus mugo, forming compact associations, occupying a restricted area on the Tibles Peak. Jenupar are the primary vegetation in a climax stage. In the composition of built fitocenoses of Pinus mugo participates also other plants like: Vaccinium myrtillus, Juniperus sibirica, Sphagnum nemoreum, Polytrichum strictum.

In associations built by Vaccinium myrtillus appear other plants, like: Lychnis nivalis, Campanula alpina, Pulsatilla alba, Melampyrum saxosum. We meet on the large shrubberies of Juniperus communis ssp nana pn the upper limit of forests, on high plateaus and in the glade in the forest on the mountain floor.

In the past, the Juniperus occupied larger areas. Large jenuparete (paused with meadows or blueberries) are in Tibles Mountains. Here it can be distinguished the association: As. Campanulo abietinae-Juniperetum. In humid biotopes of springs there are: Alnus viridis and Salix silvesiaca, S. hastata, S. caprea form the following associations: As. Salici - Alnetum viridis, As. Thyseto fusci-Salicetum hastatae.

In humid biotopes were installed the high herbs fitocenoses with: Aconitum tauricum, Rumex alpinus, Veratrum album. Associations identified in the Tibles Mountains are: As. Cirsio waldsteinii - Heracleetum transilvanicii, As. Adenostylo alliariae - Doronicetum austriaci, As. Aconietum taurici.

Subalpine meadows are used in summer as pasture. Associations identified in these areas are: As. Scorzonero roseae - Festucetum nigricantis, As. Potentillo chrysocraspedae - Festucetum airoidis and the limestone substrate: As. Festucetum saxatilis.

Summary: Clime particularities, variety of forms of relief, the differentnature of rocks, geomorphological area complexity (difference in level of about1800 m, various exhibitions, big swing inclinations of slopes and soil types) andantropozoogene influences are elements that have led the existence of rich andvaried vegetation, grouped into several types of vegetal resorts and associations.

Following the field trips so far we have identified in the Lapus Region, in the three floors of vegetation: 34 vegetal associations belonging to 11 classes, 15 orders and 24 alliances.

                                       #

ID Page District Place name Alternate names RomCath GreekCath GreekOrth Evang Reform Jewish Unit Armen Other
100900 626 Magyar-Lápos Berencze Kapnik Berencze Berencze n/a Kápolnok-Monostor
100910 626 Magyar-Lápos Blózsa Csernyefalva n/a Kápolnok-Monostor
100920 626 Magyar-Lápos Bóczfalva Magyar-Lápos Bóczfalva Magyar-Lápos
100930 626 Magyar-Lápos Borkút Borkutfalva Magyar-Lápos Magyar-Lápos Borkút n/a Magyar-Lápos
100940 626 Magyar-Lápos Brébfalva Brebeni Alsó-Kapnik Magura Kápolnok-Monostor
100950 626 Magyar-Lápos Csernefalva Cernesci Nagy-Bánya Csernefalva n/a Kápolnok-Monostor
100970 627 Magyar-Lápos Csokotes Ciocotisiu Alsó-Kapnik n/a Csokotes Kápolnok-Monostor
100980 627 Magyar-Lápos Dámpataka Dánpataka Magyar-Lápos Rohó Dámpataka n/a n/a Magyar-Lápos
100990 627 Magyar-Lápos Debreczen (Kis-) Debreczenfalva, Dobritinasiu, Dobrocina Magyar-Lápos Kis-Debreczen Magyar-Lápos Magyar-Lápos
101000 627 Magyar-Lápos Debrek (Lápos-) Csicsó-Keresztur Lápos-Debrek Lápos-Debrek Magyar-Lápos
101010 627 Magyar-Lápos Disznópataka Disznófalva, Pojana Porcului Magyar-Lápos Rohi Disznópataka n/a Magyar-Lápos
101020 627 Magyar-Lápos Domokos Domacus, Domunik, Domucusieni n/a n/a n/a Domokos Magyar-Lápos
101030 627 Magyar-Lápos Fonácz Fonász Nagybánya n/a Fonácz Kápolnok-Monostor
101040 627 Magyar-Lápos Garbonácz Karbonac, Carbonariu Nagy-Bánya Kurulya Garbonácz Kápolnok-Monostor
101050 627 Magyar-Lápos Groppa Grope, Croppa Magyar-Lápos Preluka n/a Kápolnok-Monostor
101060 627 Magyar-Lápos Gyertyános Carpenisu, Carpinisiu Alsó-Kapnik Berencs Gyertyános Kápolnok-Monostor
101070 627 Magyar-Lápos Horgaspataka Horgospatak, Strimbuly, Sztrimbu, Sztrimbuly, Strimbul, Strimbulu Oláh-Láposbánya Horgaspataka n/a n/a n/a Kápolnok-Monostor egyéb
101080 627 Magyar-Lápos Kápolnok (Kovács vagy Kovás-) Capolnicu, Faurest, Feuresti Deés n/a Kovács vagy Kovás-Kápolnok Kápolnok-Monostor
101090 627 Magyar-Lápos Kápolnok (Monostor-) Copalnicu Monasteru Nagy-Bánya Monostor-Kápolnok n/a Monostor-Kápolnok n/a
101100 627 Magyar-Lápos Kápolnok (Szurdok-) Copalnicu Alsó-Kapnik Szurdok-Kápolnok Szurdok-Kápolnok Kápolnok-Monostor
101110 627 Magyar-Lápos Kohpataka Cufoia Magyar-Lápos n/a Magyar-Lápos
101130 628 Magyar-Lápos Kosztafalva Kosztyén, Costeni Oláh-Lápos Lápos-Debrek Kosztafalva Magyar-Lápos
101140 628 Magyar-Lápos Körtvélyes (Kis-) Körtélyes, Curtuiusiu Micu, Kurtujus Alsó-Kapnik vagy Nagybánya Karulya Kis-Körtvélyes Kápolnok-Monostor
101150 628 Magyar-Lápos Kötelesmező Trestie Alsó-Kapnik Kötelesmező Kápolnok-Monostor
101160 628 Magyar-Lápos Kupsafalva Kupseny, Cupsieni Oláh-Lápos Lápos-Debrek Kupsafalva Magyar-Lápos
101170 628 Magyar-Lápos Laczhonya Laczkonya, Leschia, Letichia Alsó-Kapnik Rusor Laczhonya Kápolnok-Monostor
101180 628 Magyar-Lápos Lápos-Bánya (Oláh-) Baiutiu Oláh-Lápos-Bánya Oláh-Lápos-Bánya n/a n/a n/a
101190 628 Magyar-Lápos Lápos (Magyar-) Lapusiu Ungurescu Magyar-Lápos Magyar-Lápos n/a n/a Magyar-Lápos Magyar-Lápos n/a
101200 628 Magyar-Lápos Lápos (Oláh-) Lapusiu Romanescu, Lapusiu Rumunescu Oláh-Lápos Oláh-Lápos n/a n/a Magyar-Lápos
101210 628 Magyar-Lápos Lárga Oláh-Lápos Tőkés Magyar-Lápos
101220 628 Magyar-Lápos Libaton Libatonfalva, Comuna Libotin Oláh-Lápos Lápos-Bánya Libaton Magyar-Lápos
101230 628 Magyar-Lápos Macskamező Macskamezőfalva, Macsku, Masica Magyar-Lápos Magyar-Lápos Macskamező Magyar-Lápos Magyar-Lápos
101240 628 Magyar-Lápos Magura Magyar-Lápos Soósmező n/a Kápolnok-Monostor
101250 628 Magyar-Lápos Petyeritye Peteritia Magyar-Lápos Rohi Petyeritye Magyar-Lápos
101260 628 Magyar-Lápos Ploppis Plopisu Alsó-Kapnik n/a Ploppis Kápolnok-Monostor
101270 628 Magyar-Lápos Polyán (Batiz-) Poiana Botizei Oláh-Lápos Ungurfalva n/a
101280 628 Magyar-Lápos Preluka Preluca Nagy-Bánya Preluka n/a Kápolnok-Monostor
101300 629 Magyar-Lápos Rogoz Rogozfalva Oláh-Lápos Alsó-Szőcs Rogoz n/a Magyar-Lápos
101310 629 Magyar-Lápos Rohi Rohifalva Magyar-Lápos Rohi Rohi n/a Magyar-Lápos
101320 629 Magyar-Lápos Rusor Rusioru Alsó-Kapnik Rusor n/a Kápolnok-Monostor
101330 629 Magyar-Lápos Szőcs (Alsó-) Suciulu Inf., Suciulu de zsosz Oláh-Lápos Alsó-Szőcs Alsó-Szőcs n/a Magyar-Lápos
101340 629 Magyar-Lápos Szőcs (Felső-) Suciulu Super., Suciulu de susu, Suciulu de szusz Oláh-Lápos Felső-Szőcs n/a Magyar-Lápos
101350 629 Magyar-Lápos Sztojkafalva Sztojcsén, Stoieni Magyar-Lápos Lápos-Debrek Sztojkafalva n/a Magyar-Lápos
101360 629 Magyar-Lápos Tőkés Tökés, Gosi Oláh-Lápos Tőkés n/a n/a Magyar-Lápos
101370 629 Magyar-Lápos Ungurfalva Ungurfalu, Ungureni Ungurfalva Ungurfalva Magyar-Lápos
101380 629 Magyar-Lápos Ünőmező Ineu Magyar-Lápos Lápos-Debrek Ünőmező Magyar-Lápos
101390 629 Magyar-Lápos Vaád Vad, Vadu Alsó-Kapnik Rusor n/a Kápolnok-Monostor

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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